• This article has been reproduced from a US government source https://www.gsa.gov/node/82787

    Parking restrictions help keep threats away from a building. In urban settings, however, curbside or underground parking is often necessary and/or difficult to control. Mitigating the risks associated with parking requires creative design and planning measures, including parking restrictions, perimeter buffer zones, barriers, structural hardening, and other architectural and engineering solutions.

    Parking on Adjacent Streets

    Parking is often permitted in curb lanes, with a sidewalk between the curb lane and the building. Where distance from the building to the nearest curb provides insufficient setback, and compensating design measures do not sufficiently protect the building from the assessed threat, parking in the curb lane shall be restricted as follows:

    • Allow unrestricted parking.
    • Allow government-owned and key employee parking only.
    • Use the lane for stand-off. Use structural features to prevent parking

    Parking on Adjacent Properties

    The recommended minimum setback distance between the building and parked vehicles for this project is _____ (project-specific information to be provided). Adjacent public parking should be directed to more distant or better protected areas, segregated from employee parking and away from the facility.

    Parking Inside the Building

    • Public parking with ID check.
    • Government vehicles and employees of the building only.
    • Selected government employees only.
    • Selected government employees with a need for security.

    On-site Surface or Structured Parking. 

    US regulations stipulate that adjacent surface parking shall maintain a minimum stand-off of x feet. Parking within y feet of the building shall be restricted to authorized vehicles (project-specific information to be provided).

    Parking Facilities
    Natural Surveillance

    For all stand-alone, above ground parking facilities, maximizing visibility across as well as into and out of the parking facility shall be a key design principle.

    The preferred parking facility design employs express or non-parking ramps, speeding the user to parking on flat surfaces.

    Pedestrian paths and car park barriers should be planned to concentrate activity to the extent possible. For example, bringing all pedestrians through one portal rather than allowing them to disperse to numerous access points improves the ability to see and be seen by other users. Likewise, limiting vehicular entry/exits to a minimum number of locations is beneficial. Long span construction and high ceilings create an effect of openness and aid in lighting the facility. Shear walls should be avoided, especially near turning bays and pedestrian travel paths.Where shear walls are required, large holes in shear walls can help to improve visibility. Openness to the exterior should be maximized.

    It is also important to eliminate dead-end parking areas, as well as nooks and crannies.

    Landscaping should be done judiciously so as not to provide hiding places. It is desirable to hold planting away from the facility to permit observation of intruders.

    Stairways and Elevators:

    • Stairways and elevator lobby design shall be as open as code permits. The ideal solution is a stair and/or elevator waiting area totally open to the exterior and/or the parking areas. Designs that ensure that people using these areas can be easily seen — and can see out — should be encouraged. If a stair must be enclosed for code or weather protection purposes, glass walls will deter both personal injury attacks and various types of vandalism. Potential hiding places below stairs should be closed off; nooks and crannies should be avoided.
    • Elevator cabs should have glass backs whenever possible. Elevator lobbies should be well-lighted and visible to both patrons in the parking areas and the public out on the street.

    Perimeter Access Control:

    • Security screening or fencing may be provided at points of low activity to discourage anyone from entering the facility on foot, while still maintaining openness and natural surveillance.
    • A system of fencing, grilles, doors, etc. should be designed to completely close down access to the entire facility in unattended hours, or in some cases, all hours. Any ground level pedestrian exits that open into nonsecure areas should be emergency exits only and fitted with panic hardware for exiting movement only.
    • Details of the parking access control system will be provided for the designer.

    Surface Finishes and Signage .

    Interior walls should be painted a light color (i.e., white or light blue) to improve illumination. Signage should be clear to avoid confusion and direct users to their destination efficiently. If an escort service is available, signs should inform users.

    Lighting. Lighting levels should comply with Table 8-3.

    The lighting level standards recommended by the Illuminations Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Subcommittee on Off-Roadway Facilities are the lowest acceptable lighting levels for any parking facility. The above table adjusts the lighting levels according to the protection level. A point by point analysis should be done in accordance with the IESNA standards. 

    Table 8-3 Maintained Illumination Levels (Footcandles)1

    Horizontal illumination at pavement, minimum
    Covered parking areas 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
    Roof and surface parking areas 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00
    Stairwells, elevator lobbies 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5
    Uniformity ratio (average: minimum) 4:1 4:1 4:1 4:1
    Uniformity ratio (maximum: minimum) 20:1 20:1 20:1 20:1
    Vertical illumination 5 feet above pavement, minimum
    Covered parking areas 0.625 0.75 0.875 1
    Roof and surface parking areas 0.125 0.25 0.375 0.5
    Stairwells, elevator lobbies 1.25 1.75 2.25 2.75

    Emergency Communications 

    Emergency intercom/duress buttons or assistance stations should be placed on structure columns, fences, other posts, and/or freestanding pedestals and brightly marked with stripping or paint visible in low light. If CCTV coverage is available, automatic activation of corresponding cameras should be provided, as well as dedicated communications with security or law enforcement stations.

    It is helpful to include flashing lights that can rapidly pinpoint the location of the calling station for the response force, especially in very large parking structures. It should only be possible to re-set a station that has been activated at the station with a security key. It should not be possible to re-set the station from any monitoring site.

    A station should be within 50 feet of reach.


    • Color CCTV cameras with recording capability and panzoom-tilt drivers, if warranted, should be placed at entrance and exit vehicle ramps. Auto-scanning units are not recommended.
    • Fixed-mount, fixed-lens color or monochrome cameras should be placed on at least one side of regular use and emergency exit doors connecting to the building or leading outside. In order for these cameras to capture scenes of violations, time-delayed electronic locking should be provided at doors, if permitted by governing code authorities. Without features such as time delayed unlocking or video motion detection, these cameras may be ineffective.


    votre commentaire
  • Image result for car

    Car safety has most assuredly improved through the years since the debut of the automobile. The founders of the industry would be truly astounded at all the features now available on our main form of transportation. The birth of the combustion engine has changed our lives and in most dramatic way. It has allowed us to journey to places that would otherwise have taken weeks or months to reach. Many changes have taken place over the years, and improving car safety has always been one of the main focuses of the industry.

    As vehicles improved with technological advancements, faster speeds were attained and annoying little bumps as well as more serious accidents were a byproduct of our use. Automobile manufacturers became more concerned with improving car safety and preventing injuries and deaths. It cannot be overstated how much car safety has improved over the years. But with that said, accidents can and do continue to occur.

    The car safety devices were there, such as seat belts, but were not always utilized by its operators. It wasn't until Congress in many states addressed this very serious issue of car safety on a state and national level, to a serious campaign to use the seat belts was launched. Drivers in these states are required to buckle up or they will be fined by law enforcement. I believe the slogan is "click it or ticket". Some car manufacturers in an effort to improve car safety designed seat belts that would secure themselves around the driver automatically after ignition.

    It is all of our responsibilities as motorists and passengers to strive for car safety. Not every accident can be prevented completely, but we as consumers can make good choices by selecting a safe vehicle for ourselves and our families, and use the restraint system. An outstanding breakthrough of the past decade or two has been the invention of driver and passenger airbags, including side airbags that deploy from the doors. Child safety seats are another quantum leap in car safety as stronger alloys that the cars are constructed with.

    Consumers can get more information on vehicle safety ratings by visiting the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov. A plethora of test data such asc Crash test and rollover test ratings are available for perusal on most passenger cars, pick up trucks, SUVs, and vans from 1990 to the present. Car safety ratings should always be studied and compared for the various vehicles that you are interested in. This is a very good site to visit and can assist consumers in making an informed decision based on car safety ratings.

    votre commentaire
  • Image result for car

    Safety is the most important consideration when looking for a new or used car. Every year the Federal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) publishes safety ratings. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) also produces findings from crash-test studies and other safety information. The car shopping process must include safety research and a great place to start is a website called crashtest.com. In addition to the most current information, they feature safety data on older cars.

    Safety considerations can be divided into three categories: weight of the vehicle, passive safety features, which help passengers stay alive and uninjured in a crash and finally, active safety features. These features help drivers avoid accidents in the first place. Keep in mind that testing is conducted with test dummies wearing seat belts and shoulder harnesses. Without them, a 15 mile per hour crash could prove fatal no matter what you drive.

    Weight Matters

    All cars must meet US Department of Transportation standards for crash-worthiness. Larger and heavier cars, however, are usually safer in a collision than smaller ones. If a heavier vehicle collides head-on with a lighter one, the lighter will suffer substantially more damage. Drivers under age 20 experience a much higher percentage of traffic fatalities when compared to other drivers, so consider the safety of a large or mid-sized sedan for inexperienced drivers. Large cars offer increased levels of comfort and roominess when compared to their smaller siblings, and today's fuel injected engines allow mid-sized, 6-cylinder automobiles to enjoy remarkably good gas mileage.

    Passive Safety Features

    Passive safety features help drivers and passengers stay alive and uninjured in a crash. Size is a safety feature: bigger is safer.

    Restraint systems are crucial. Safety belts are the best safety device ever developed for the automobile. First installed in the 1950s, they have been mandatory equipment since 1967. Initial use was low (20% in 1970), but education and legislation increased their usage to over 70% by 1987. Modern restraints have automatic seat-belt pre-tensioners to pick up the slack and stretch that occurs in an accident, providing better occupant protection and additional space for the airbag deployment. It's important to remember that even though airbags help reduce serious injuries, safety belts are still needed for full protection.

    Seat belts and airbags work together in a collision. Driver and passenger-side airbags are now standard equipment on every new motor vehicle sold in theUS. Most used cars made after 1996 have them as well. Side-impact airbags greatly increase protection. Despite some bad press, airbags save thousands of lives every year. Manufacturers have reintroduced the two-stage airbag to avoid potential injuries to children and small adults from cheaper one-stage designs. It's still vital, however, that children ride in the back seat of any motor vehicle.

    A word about disconnecting airbags: babies or children under 4' 7" should never ride in the front seat of a vehicle because rapidly inflating airbags can severely injure or kill small front seat occupants. If there's a child in your future and you have a two-seater, ask your dealer to install a disconnect switch for the passenger-side airbag. You don't want it permanently disconnected; airbags DO save adult lives.

    Most automobile headrests provide little protection in rear-end accidents The federal government required their installation in 1967. An effective headrest is one that is directly behind the centerline of the head and positioned no more than two inches away. Be aware that some seating options change the size and style of head restraint.

    Structural integrity is another important component of passive safety. The US Department of Transportation requires that the doors and passenger compartments of automobiles made after 1996 meet minimal side impact standards. The legislation doesn't apply to light trucks (minivans, pickups, SUVs), but most manufacturers of even these vehicles have complied with the law.

    Active Safety Features

    Active safety features help drivers avoid accidents. A vehicle's tires, brakes, handling, acceleration, and visibility all make important contributions to active crash avoidance.

    The most important safety items on a car are the tires. Think about it: they're all that connects your vehicle to the road. A good set of tires can make a huge difference to the way a car responds to emergency maneuvers. Tire quality also noticeably affects the way a car handles. Sport touring tires have much more grip than regular tires, although their softer compounds don't last as long.

    Anti-lock brakes (ABS) are an often-misunderstood active safety feature. ABS helps vehicles stop shorter and maintain steering control while braking, especially on slippery surfaces. Anti-lock brakes sense when a wheel is locked and electronically pump the brakes ten times faster than a driver could, making a ratcheting noise and a vibration in the brake pedal. Old braking techniques must be unlearned in order to use ABS effectively. In a panic stop, depress the brake pedal once, and hold it down firmly. Do not pump the pedal.

    Traction control is a worthwhile option that improves traction and directional stability on slippery roads, using a combination of electronics, drive train control, and ABS. Some systems adjust engine power output while gently applying the brakes to particular wheels during acceleration and cornering. These systems help stabilize a vehicle's handling when it's pushed to the limits.

    When shopping remember four-wheel-drive pick-up trucks and sport utility vehicles (SUVs) are designed to be driven for work, hauling, and off-road purposes. They are not designed to be people movers, and don't handle nearly as well as passenger cars or mini vans. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reports that SUVs are four times more likely to roll over than passenger cars in high-speed maneuvers. In addition, SUV-to-car collisions are six times more likely to kill the occupants of the smaller vehicle when compared to a normal car-to-car collision. You may be safer inside an SUV, but you're at greater risk of killing others in the event of an accident.

    If you're in the market for a great, safe vehicle call today.

    votre commentaire
  • Related image

    votre commentaire